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In August 2013, former New England Patriot Aaron Hernandez was indicted on first-degree murder and weapons charges stemming from the death of Odin Lloyd, a semi-pro football player for the Boston Bandits. Two critical pieces of evidence were discovered in Hernandez’s rental car: shell casings and blue Bubblicious chewing gum.
Hernandez allegedly purchased a pack of the chewing gum from a gas station the night of the murder while driving a rental car. A chewed piece was found in the car upon its return to the rental company, where Hernandez offered the rental agent a piece from the same gum packet. A chewed piece of the same gum was also found in a trash bin near the crime scene.
Hernandez’s returned rental car also contained a .44 caliber shell casing (the same caliber as the gun used to kill Lloyd), matching five casings found at the crime scene.
The Hernandez case illustrates a type of scenario often faced by car rental companies, which frequently leads to these questions: What is the obligation of a car rental company to report evidence of a possible crime? What are the scope and extent of a company’s duties to cooperate in police investigations, and how should the company respond to a subpoena?
Following these best practices will help a car rental company answer those questions and minimize risk while protecting the business.
Understand Your Duty to Report a Crime
If a car is returned with a gun or drugs in the trunk, or there is evidence of wrongdoing (such as blood stains on the seats), do you have to notify the authorities?
Generally speaking there is no affirmative duty to report a crime. However, there are exceptions, which vary from state to state and municipality to municipality. Mandatory reporting statutes are rare but occur where it is specific to a certain legislated group.
The exceptions generally involve minors or vulnerable adults. For example, in Arizona, there is no general affirmative duty requiring a private citizen to report evidence of a crime, except when there is evidence of harm to a child.
California similarly requires reporting of harm to minors or the elderly, specifically under the California Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Act (CANRA).
In Ohio, there is a codified, affirmative duty to report evidence of a crime. The Ohio statute includes specific language mandating that anyone who discovers a dead body or acquires “first knowledge” of the death of a person must report the death immediately to law enforcement.
The Ohio statute also lists penalties for failure to report — generally second- and fourth-degree misdemeanor offenses — and in particular circumstances it could lead to further criminal penalties.
Note that even in Ohio, a person can be found guilty of violating the reporting statute only where there is actual knowledge of the commission of the crime, coupled with a failure to report.
A federal statute, called “misprision of felony,” may be applicable for federal crimes. This statute echoes Ohio’s statute, stating that those with knowledge of the commission of a felony who do not report it as soon as possible will be subject to a fine or possible imprisonment.
Even Absent a Legal Duty, Companies Should Consider Developing Reporting Practices
Employees should be instructed on how and to whom to make a report when they observe suspicious activity or evidence. If you suspect that the vehicle itself could be evidence of a crime, the safest and smartest thing to do is to document the incident and inform law enforcement.
Before calling your police jurisdiction’s non-emergency line, determine the identity of all individuals who have or may have had contact with the vehicle.
Make sure you know which employee rented the vehicle, who discovered the evidence and anyone who would testify to the state of the vehicle.Collect the documents signed by the renter and ensure that the vehicle is in a safe place.
In order to protect the business and the employees, it is important to carefully note the exact condition and location where the car was found. If there is surveillance footage, back up the original and make a copy for law enforcement.
If law enforcement is interested in impounding the vehicle as evidence, ask for an inventory and photos of the vehicle for indemnity purposes and to make claims if the vehicle is further damaged in police custody. Do not remove items, however, even if there are items that belong to the company — such as a GPS unit or maps.
By providing law enforcement information up front to complete a report and investigation quickly, you may eliminate the need for disruptive employee interviews and follow-up meetings.